张鸿林为什么会不打cba
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這位美國總統候選人自稱是社會主義者,他有多少財富?

Suzanne Woolley,彭博社 2019年04月18日

盡管宣稱自己窮,但桑德斯的財富在美國人當中的排名還是相當靠前的。

伯尼·桑德斯是億萬富翁?這可能會讓人大吃一驚。

但他是百萬富翁嗎?毫無疑問。而且在今時今日的美國,像桑德斯這樣的人還有很多。

上周桑德斯承認了自己的七位數身家,成為美國1730萬名百萬富翁之一,至少按某項指標來說是這樣。

他還自稱為民主社會主義者。此前兩次參選總統,桑德斯都把收入分配和貧富差距作為核心綱領。他說擁有和掌控美國的是少數億萬富翁,他們的貪婪已經撕裂了社會結構,而且正是因為他們,美國正在變成一個寡頭統治的國家。

這種民粹主義言論可能讓這位77歲的參議員在美國最富有的5%人群中的位置感覺有些尷尬。

無論如何,美國的百萬富翁數量達到前所未有的水平是合理情況。人數眾多的嬰兒潮一代在享受了長達10年的牛市后開始退休,而且其中的許多人都有401(k)養老金計劃,甚至是退休金計劃。富達投資稱,去年12月美股大跌前,該公司余額達到和超過100萬美元的401(k)賬戶共有18.74萬個。

不過,這個數字只占富達投資全部賬戶的1%左右。大多數的美國人都遠遠達不到桑德斯的水平。只有約55%的人有401(k)退休儲蓄計劃。美聯儲在2018年的報告中指出,面對400美元的緊急支出,40%的美國成年人都需要借錢或變賣物品,否則就無力承擔。

桑德斯來自于中低收入家庭,父母都沒有上過大學。這曾經是一個從不那么貧窮走向富有的故事。而統計數據顯示,“寫就”這種故事的難度正在加大。

佩爾研究所和高等教育研究機構PennAhead的報告稱,2014年,在24歲的本科畢業生中,有一半以上都來自于年收入至少達到11.65萬美元的家庭;家庭年收入不足3.5萬美元的畢業生只占10%。

就在幾年前,桑德斯的凈值還有可能低于100萬美元。政壇人士的財產報表對資產價值的界定范圍很寬,因而很難準確判斷他的富裕程度。但無黨派研究機構響應性政治中心在2015年指出,桑德斯的個人資產介于271033美元至1153999美元之間,在100名參議員中排名第77。該機構估算的具體凈值為712516美元。

另外桑德斯還有負債。他的兩筆抵押貸款至少為35萬美元,而且有可能達到75萬美元。

2016年參加辯論時桑德斯曾經“哭訴”自己比較窮,他說:“可惜,我仍然是參議院中較貧窮的成員之一。”

情況可能依然如此。響應性政治中心發現,2015年,也就是該中心分析的最近一個年份,70%以上的參議員都是百萬富翁。共和黨參議員的個人凈值中位數是330萬美元,同比上升13%;民主黨參議員的個人凈值中位數則略低于300萬美元,增長了9.6%。

中立人士桑德斯的很大一筆意外之財要感謝出版業。他寫了四本書,最新的一本是2018年出版的《Where We Go From Here》。2016年桑德斯的收入超過100萬美元,除了17.4萬美元的參議員工資,還有86.8萬美元來自于版權費。2017年,他申報的版權費收入約為88萬美元。

未列入桑德斯財產的有三處住宅,其中兩幢位于佛蒙特州,另一所聯排別墅在華盛頓國會山。2016年,桑德斯因為購買度假屋而受到了一些批評,這幢位于尚普蘭湖畔的別墅有四間臥室,價格為57.5萬美元。當時,桑德斯的妻子簡說他們賣掉了簡一家在1900年就擁有的緬因州湖畔住宅,然后用所得資金買了那幢別墅。

桑德斯已經表示,他會在周一,也就是今年申報的最終期限前公布過去10年的納稅申報單。

如今,大家對百萬富翁應該具備哪些資格看法不一。這篇報道中的百萬富翁在另一篇報道中也許只是富裕人士,這真可怕。

一些研究機構估算美國富翁人數時將房產包括在內,但扣除了債務,比如稱美國有1730萬百萬富翁的瑞士信貸。Spectrem Group等公司計算這個數字時則未納入房產。Spectrem Group表示,2018年凈值介于100萬美元至500萬美元的美國家庭共有1020萬個,比2017年增加2.5%。如果加上凈值超過500萬美元的家庭,凈值至少達到100萬美元的美國家庭數量將升至1180萬個。

對于想和他一樣進入較高階層的美國同胞,桑德斯有一條建議。他對《紐約時報》說:“我寫了一本最暢銷的書。如果你能寫一本這樣的書,那你也會成為百萬富翁。”(財富中文網)

譯者:Charlie

審校:夏林

Bernie Sanders a billionaire? That would be a shock.

But Bernie Sanders a millionaire? Sure. And in today’s America, he’s got a lot of company.

Sanders, who acknowledged his seven-digit status last week, is one of an estimated 17.3 million millionaires living in the U.S., by one measure at least.

He’s also a self-described democratic socialist who has placed income distribution and inequality at the center of his two presidential runs. He has said the country is owned and controlled by a small number of billionaires whose greed has torn the fabric of society and because of them, the U.S. is becoming an oligarchy.

That kind of populist rhetoric can make the 77-year-old senator’s perch in the top 5 percent of wealth in America feel a bit, well, awkward.

In any event, that the U.S. is home to more millionaires than ever makes sense. A big wave of baby boomers, many with 401(k)s and perhaps even pension plans, has been moving into retirement after enjoying a decade-long bull market. Before last December’s market rout, Fidelity Investments reported having 187,400 401(k) accounts with balances of $1 million or more, a record high.

That, though, represents only about 1 percent of all Fidelity accounts. Most Americans are far from achieving what Sanders has. Only about 55 percent have 401(k) retirement-savings plans. And four in 10 adults faced with a $400 emergency expense would have to borrow, sell something or not be able to cover it, according to a 2018 report by the Federal Reserve.

Sanders’s rise from a lower-middle-income family, with parents who didn’t go to college, used to be a classic American not-quite-rags to riches story. Statistics show it is becoming harder to write.

A report by The Pell Institute and PennAhead found that 24-year-olds who grew up in households with at least $116,500 in annual income represented more than half of the college degrees earned in 2014; households with incomes below $35,000 produced just 10 percent of the graduates.

Until a few years ago, Sanders’ net worth was likely below the $1 million mark. Financial-disclosure forms for politicians allow for wide ranges in asset values, making it hard to get a good grasp on how wealthy he is. But in 2015, Sanders clocked in at No. 77 of the 100 senators in terms of net worth, within the range of $271,033 to $1,153,999, according to the Center for Responsive Politics. The group estimated Sanders’ net worth at $712,516.

And he does have debt: His two mortgages are at minimum $350,000 and could be as much as $750,000.

He lamented his relative poverty in a 2016 debate, saying, “Unfortunately, I remain one of the poorer members of the United States Senate.”

This could still be true. An analysis by the Center for Responsive Politics found that more than 70 percent of Senators were millionaires in 2015, the most recent year for the center’s analysis. The median net worth of Republicans in the chamber was $3.3 million, up 13 percent from the previous year, while the median net worth of Democrats was just under $3 million, up 9.6 percent.

Sanders, who isn’t affiliated with either party, has the publishing industry to thank for much of his windfall. He’s penned four books, the latest “Where We Go From Here” in 2018. He earned more than $1 million in 2016, when he got $868,000 in royalties on top of his $174,000 Senate salary. His 2017 financial-disclosure report listed royalties of about $880,000.

Not counted in Sanders’ wealth tally are three homes: two in Vermont and a row house on Capitol Hill in Washington. In 2016, he caught some flak for buying a vacation home — a four-bedroom place on Lake Champlain that cost $575,000. His wife, Jane, said at the time the couple had sold a Maine lake home her family had owned since 1900 and used those proceeds to buy the vacation property.

Sanders has said he will release 10 years of his tax returns by Monday, this year’s deadline for filing.

Now, not everyone’s definition of what qualifies someone as a millionaire is the same. One report’s millionaire may be another’s merely — the horror! — mass affluent.

Some researchers, such as Credit Suisse with its 17.3 million, include housing in the total and subtract debt. Others, including Spectrem Group, don’t include the value of a home. Spectrem figures there were 10.2 million U.S. households in 2018 with a net worth of between $1 million and $5 million, a 2.5 percent rise from 2017. When households with more than $5 million are added in, the tally rises to 11.8 million households with a net worth of at least $1 million.

Sanders had advice for Americans who want to join him in the upper ranks . “I wrote a best-selling book,” he told the New York Times. “If you write a best-selling book, you can be a millionaire, too.”

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张鸿林为什么会不打cba