张鸿林为什么会不打cba
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男女同工不同酬,職場女性應該怎么辦?

Anne Fisher 2019年02月20日

即便女性經理人提出加薪要求,她們也不太可能成功。

首先報告大家一個好消息:如果你覺得讀一個MBA學位可以帶來更好的工作和更高的薪水,那么恭喜你答對了。美國有一家名叫福特基金會的非營利機構,該機構針對2005年至2017年之間獲得商學學位的900名畢業生進行了研究,發現在取得商學學位后,這些畢業生的總薪酬平均增長了60%以上,不管他們是男人、女人、白人、黑人、西班牙移民還是印地安人。不過令人失望的是,對于MBA畢業生來說,薪酬的性別差異不僅是存在的,而且還在越拉越大。

據統計,女性經理人在就讀MBA前最后一份工作的平均薪水要比同等資歷的男性經理人低3%左右。然而在讀取了MBA學位后,這個差距就拉大到了28%。換言之,女性經理人每年要比男性經理人少賺5.9萬美元的年薪。其中又以少數族裔女性高管的薪酬最低,大約要比“非少數族裔”的男性低52%,也就是7.7萬美元。

福特基金會的CEO艾麗莎·桑斯特表示,這些數據給有些公司敲響了警鐘。“有些大公司在密切關注高潛力人才的同酬問題上做得很好,以確保這些人才在職業生涯的每一步都能獲得合理報酬。但還有很多雇主根本沒有這樣做,他們正面臨著失去高價值女性人才的風險。”

作為一位女性經理人,指望雇主自己發善心給你加薪,那怕是要等到天荒地老了。有40%的受訪女性MBA畢業生表示,她們知道自己遭遇過或者正在遭遇不平等的薪酬待遇,然而她們對此的反應無疑會讓很多男性同事感到困惑——她們最慣常的兩種反應是:“我沒有也不打算采取任何舉動”和“我離開了那家公司”。

那么,女人為什么不能像男人一樣跟公司談薪水呢?這是個好問題,但是答案很復雜。首先,在決定是否要辭去一份工作時,女人更喜歡考慮薪酬以外的因素,比如工作的靈活性、工作地點、她們是否喜歡這項工作、是否喜歡工作中遇到的同事等等。桑斯特指出:“至于是不是值得待在一家公司工作,薪水只是女人考慮的因素之一,而男人更喜歡用錢來衡量成功。”

另一個令人更加不安的事實是,即便女性經理人提出加薪要求,她們也不太可能成功。根據Glassdoor公司2016年的一項研究,男性經理人談加薪的成功率是女性經理人的三倍。卡洛·弗洛林格表示:“社會對女性的刻板偏見讓我們無法接受。大家都認為,女性就應該體量別人,而不應該為自己要求什么。”接著她又表示,譴責大男子主義很容易,“但研究表明,即使女性經理人要求了加薪,大多情況下她們也不會得到加薪。”

弗洛林格是一名律師,她經營著一家名叫Negotiating Women的職業輔導和咨詢公司,這家公司主要與大客戶合作,為女性人才提供職業發展。她表示:“女性確實需要在薪酬問題上更加自信”,但是,“如何提出這個問題也是至關重要的。”她建議女性經理人在談加薪時,可以采取以下三個步驟:

1. 提前計劃。弗洛林格表示:“這就好比制定你的繳稅策略一樣。你應該全年都想著這件事,而不是等到12月31日才想:‘我今年本來應該怎么做來著?’”你可以每周或每月總結你的成績,以免疏漏,同時盡量量化你的工作成果。對于急難險重任務和重點項目要敢于主動請纓,并且要詳細記錄項目進展。在這個過程中,也要盡可能多地獲取反饋。弗羅林格表示:“這對女性來說至關重要。研究表明,女性得到的反饋一般遠遠少于男性。但是如果你不知道問題出在哪里,就無法解決它。”你可以向同事和上級征詢具體意見建議。

2.了解你的市場價值。去一些求職網站(如Salary.com、Payscale.com和Glassdoor等)看看你的崗位在其他公司值多少錢。“如果你是一個蘋果,你就得跟其他的蘋果比。”弗洛林格表示:“為了得到盡可能準確的數據,你還要綜合考慮崗位、經驗、行業、公司規模和地理位置等因素。有了這些信息,你就可以跟公司開始談判了。你可以這樣開口:‘我這個崗位的市場價值是X元,我認為我值這么多錢,原因如下……’接著你就可以介紹你的工作成績了。”換句話說,也就是從去年開始(或者從上一次薪資評估起)你記錄下來的主要工作成績。“這種客觀的方式,使你們的討論弱化了人的主觀因素,跟其他商業提議沒有什么區別。這樣就不會讓別人產生反感。”

3. 讓對話圍繞“我們”展開。弗洛林格建議,你應該直接與你的老板談,而不是跟人力資源部門的任何人談,理由也很簡單:“你的直接上級是最了解你工作的人,而且他最希望你繼續在現在的崗位上做這件事。”你肯定不想讓這場談判變得充滿對抗性。所以這次談話的基調應該是:“我們怎樣才能讓我的薪酬盡量接近我的市場價值?”重點在于“我們”二字。弗洛林格表示:“即便公司本來沒有大幅加薪的預算,如果你的老板希望把你留下來,他也會給你一些其他福利,讓你進一步在公司施展抱負。“比如有些培訓能讓你進入一個全新的領域,讓你擁有不同的薪水構成。”另外,你也可以自己給出一些建議,告訴老板哪些福利可以讓你產生跟加薪類似的幸福感。有了這些建議,“你的老板更有可能答應你的要求。”(財富中文網)

本文作者安妮·費希爾是一位職業專家和咨詢專欄作家,她也是《財富》雜志關于21世紀工作和生活指南“Work It Out”專欄的主筆。

譯者:樸成奎

First, the good news: If you thought getting an MBA would lead to a bigger job and a higher salary, you were right. A study from the nonprofit Forte Foundation, based on a survey of 900 U.S. executives who earned graduate business degrees between 2005 and 2017, found that the credential boosted total compensation by an average of more than 60% across all demographics—men, women, and minorities (black, Hispanic, or Native American) of both sexes. Now, the more discouraging news: The infamous gender pay gap not only persists post-MBA, it gets bigger.

Women leaders reported salaries in their last pre-MBA job that were 3% lower than their male peers’. In their current roles, though, female MBAs earn 28% less. The study notes that gap represents, on average, almost $59,000 in annual pay. Minority women executives fare worst of all, with salaries that are 52%, or about $77,000, less than “non-minority” men’s.

The figures are “a wake-up call” to companies who need to try harder to close the gap, says Elissa Sangster, the Forte Foundation’s CEO. “Some big companies already do an amazing job of closely tracking and comparing their high-potential people throughout their careers, to make sure they’re compensated appropriately at each step. But many employers are still not doing this at all, and they risk losing highly skilled female talent.”

Depending on where you work, hoping your employer will get around to addressing the pay gap might feel like the corporate version of Waiting for Godot. Although About 40% of women MBAs in the survey said they were aware of being underpaid, either right now or in a previous job, they most often reported reactions that would no doubt baffle their male counterparts. The top two: “I have not taken action and do not intend to” and “I left the company.”

Why not try negotiating for more money, the same way men do? It’s a good question, with a complicated answer. For one thing, in deciding whether or not to leave a job, women seem more likely to take into account factors other than pay, including how flexible a job is, where it’s located, and how much they enjoy what they do and the people they do it with. “Women tend to see compensation as just one component of their worth to an organization, and their job satisfaction,” observes Sangster. By contrast, “men are more likely to measure success in dollars.”

Maybe, but there’s another, more uncomfortable reality at work here, too. Even when women do ask for more money, they’re much less likely to get it. According to a 2016 Glassdoor analysis, men come out winners three times as often as women do. “Social stereotypes about women make it unacceptable for us. We’re supposed to be taking care of others, not asking for anything for ourselves,” says Carol Frohlinger. She adds that blaming male chauvinism is too easy: “Research shows that women most often don’t get raises even when requesting them from other women.”

Frohlinger is an attorney who runs a coaching and consulting firm, Negotiating Women, that works with big clients on developing female talent. “Women do need to get more assertive” about pay, Frohlinger says, but “how you approach the subject is crucial.” She recommends these three steps:

1. Plan ahead. “It’s like strategizing about your taxes,” says Frohlinger. “You think about it all year ’round, rather than waiting until December 31 and then thinking, ‘Hm, what should I have done?'” Keep a journal of your accomplishments and add to it weekly or monthly, so nothing gets overlooked or forgotten, and quantify your results whenever possible. Go after “stretch” assignments and high-profile projects when they pop up, and note in detail how they turn out. Along the way, get as much feedback as you can. “This is essential for women,” Frohlinger notes. “Studies show that women get far less feedback than men. But, if you don’t know what’s broken, you can’t fix it.” Ask peers and higher-ups for specific critiques.

2. Know your market value. Go to sites like Salary.com, Payscale.com, and Glassdoor to check out what what your role pays in other companies. “Be sure to compare apples with apples,” says Frohlinger. “To get as accurate a figure as possible, you need to look at title, experience, industry, company size, and geographic location.” With that information in hand, you can start negotiating by pointing out, “‘The market value of my position right now is X. I think I’m worth that much, and here’s why’,” Frohlinger notes. “From there, it’s a matter of selling your accomplishments”—which you’ve already written down throughout the past year (or however long it’s been since your last salary review). “This factual approach depersonalizes the discussion, so it’s like any other business proposition,” she says. “It doesn’t put people off.”

3. Make the conversation about “us”. Frohlinger advises bargaining with your boss, rather than with anyone in human resources, for the common-sense reason that “the person you report to directly is the one who knows your work best, and who presumably wants you to keep doing it.” The last thing you want is for this meeting to turn adversarial. “You’re on the same side,” says Frohlinger. The tone to aim for is, “How can we get my total compensation as close as possible to my market value?”—emphasis on “we.” Even if a substantial salary bump just isn’t in the budget right now, a boss who wants you to stick around “can usually find other goodies to enhance your career looking forward,” Frohlinger says. “Some kinds of training, for example, can put you into a whole new category, with different salary bands.” You might even go into the discussion with a few suggestions of your own about things that would satisfy you as much, or nearly as much, as a big raise. By bringing those ideas to the table, “you can help make it easy for your boss to say ‘yes’.”

Anne Fisher is a career expert and advice columnist who writes “Work It Out,” Fortune’s guide to working and living in the 21st century.

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张鸿林为什么会不打cba